The study of youth gangs has usually favoured their most controversial and harmful aspects. This focus corresponds to the priority given to violent gang representation models by public policy and media. TRANSGANG project aims to reverse this approach. Instead of focusing on failure cases and social exclusion (ie, in war and conflict), it aims to study successful cases of youth gangs and social inclusion (ie in peace and mediation). It will focus on experiences of intervention by youth gangs of two transnational communities (Latinos and Arabs) in three cities within three geographical and cultural regions -Southern Europe, North Africa and the Americas- but will also take into account other international experiences. The TRANSGANG project will develop a renewed model for the analysis of transnational youth gangs in the global era, in dialogue with two classics of urban ethnography, published nearly a century ago: The Gang, by F.M. Thrasher (1926) and The Polish Peasant in Europe and America, by W. I. Thomas and F. Znaniecki (1918-1920). Traditionally, a youth gang has been typically understood as a small delinquent group of young men based in a locality. The focus has been on crime and violence. Where there has been acknowledgement of larger-sized gangs with a greater geographical range, the emphasis has still been primarily on violence and crime. Less attention has been paid to migration (rural-urban, transnational) and to the economies of gangs; that is, how members and local communities gain a variety of benefits. Youth gangs should be distinguished from organized crime or transnational criminal organisations, including terrorist cells. Manuel Castells (1996) argued over twenty years ago that the network society is a ‘space of flows’, exemplified by online connectivity. The ‘affordances’ – potentials, opportunities - of the internet are crucial to the contemporary social practices of youth, including the constitution of gangs. Moreover, gangs have specific cultural practices and creative outputs. These too require recognition. In short, we need new ways of talking about transnational youth gangs in the global era. This project sets out to fill the gap. The novelty of the project is two-sided. Firstly, it focuses on inclusive and positive aspects of gang membership and the positivation of their marginalized position within the social structure. Some research focuses on proactive experiences in gang behaviour and policies (Leinfelt & Rostam, 2011, Vencatesh, 2009), but very few studies systematically compare such aspects in order to find variants and invariants in the evolution or in the reversal of the criminal gang model. Secondly, it uses a transnational comparative methodology, focused on a group rarely included in gang studies –Young Arabs- along with another overstudied group –Young Latinos. Both groups face big challenges regarding new generations in their homelands and in their diasporic new lands. Their collective forms of behaviour – ‘bandas latinas’, ‘rapppers’, ‘hittistes’, ‘charmil’, ‘baltagiyya’, ‘hooligans’, etc - have been seen as barriers to their social inclusion. Last but not least, Latino and Arab young people in Europe and in their homelands suffer today the stigma of being tagged with allegations of drug trafficking and radicalization processes.