European Research Council



Family Justice

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Moral and political philosophers have paid increasing attention to the ethical issues arising around the family over the last two decades. These issues focus primarily on the justification, limits and role of the parent-child relation, and are distinct from, though not unrelated to, those treated by the well-established and rich feminist literature on the family and gender. Their discussion can be helpfully organised around two orthogonal distinctions: the first is between issues concerning procreation and those concerning parenthood; the second distinction refers to the parties whose interests are invoked when examining the issues around procreation and parenthood: those of procreators/parents, those of (possible) children, and those of third parties, where these include other family members, contemporary fellow citizens, future generations.

This bibliography does not aim to offer references on all or even most of these issues, many of which are treated in articles and books in bioethics and population ethics as well as in political philosophy. There are already some very helpful wide-ranging online bibliographies on procreation, parenthood, children´s rights, and the ethics of the family. (See, for example, the bibliography in E. Brake´s and J. Millum´s entry on Parenthood and Procreation in the Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy ( An overview of many of the on-going debates in family ethics can also be glimpsed by reading some recent edited volumes, including D. Archard and C. Macleod (eds.), The Moral and Political Status of Children (Oxford University Press, 2002); D. Archard and D. Benatar (eds.), Procreation and Parenthood (Oxford University Press, 2010); F. Baylis and C. McLeod (eds.), Family Making (Oxford University Press, 2014); and S. Hannan, S. Brennan and R. Vernon (eds.), Permissible Progeny? (Oxford University Press, 2015).

The coverage of this bibliography reflects, instead, the particular aim of this research project, whose distinctive contribution can be characterised, broadly speaking, by its focus on the analysis of the socio-economic dimensions of the family as an institution of the just society, that is, as an institution which plays the crucial role of social reproduction. More specifically, the bibliography below offers references to works in the debates that the research project has drawn on and/or contributed to thus far in order to address two main sets of questions:

  1. The costs and benefits of children (Section 1) What are the costs and benefits of children, and what does liberal egalitarian justice have to say regarding how these costs and benefits should be distributed between, on the one hand, procreators/parents and, on the other, society at large, both across contemporaries and across generations?
  2. Liberal equality, parental partiality and parental upbringing (Sections 2, 3 and 4)Under what conditions are parental prerogatives regarding and vis-à-vis their children (parental partiality towards their children, and parents´ freedom to choose how to raise their children) in tension with the distributive egalitarian principles which liberal egalitarians endorse, and how, if at all, can a reconciliation between respecting parental prerogatives and equality be struck?


I. The costs and benefits of children

1) Who should pay for the costs of children?

This section contains references to articles and books that address a number of questions concerning the costs of having and raising children, including what costs procreators/parents, or society more broadly, are permitted or required to internalise and how those costs should be shared between among members of society, in particular, between parents, the taxpayer and the children themselves.

Ackerman, B. Social Justice in the Liberal State (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980)

Alstott, A.L. No Exit. What Parents Owe Their Children and What Society Owes Parents (Oxford University Press 2004)

Alstott, A.L. “What does a fair society owe children – and their parents?”, Fordham Law Review, 72 (2004): 1941-1978

Bou-Habib, P. “Parental Subsidies: The Argument from Insurance”, Politics, Philosophy & Economics 12 (2013): 197-216

Bou-Habib, P, and Olsaretti, S. “Equality, Autonomy and the Price of Parenting”, Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (2013): 420-438

Boran, I. “Benefits, Intentions, and the Principle of Fairness”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (2006): 95-116.

Bubeck, D. E.. Care, Gender and Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995)

Burley, J. “The Price of Eggs,” in J. Harris and S. Holm (eds.) The Future of Human Reproduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000): pp. 127-149

Burggraf, S. “How Should the Costs of Child Rearing Be Distributed?”, Challenge (September/October 1993): 48-55

Burkett, E. The Baby Boon: How Family-Friendly America Cheats the Childless (New York: Free Press, 2001)

Casal, P. “Environmentalism, Procreation, and the Principle of Fairness”, Public Affairs Quarterly 13 (1999): 363-376

Casal, P., and A. Williams “Rights, Equality and Procreation”, Analyse & Kritik 17 (1995): 93-116

Casal, P., and A. Williams “Equality of Resources and Procreative Justice”, in J. Burley (ed.), Dworkin and His Critics (Blackwell, 2004): pp. 150-169

Casal, P. and A. Williams “Equality”, in C. MacKinnon (ed.), Issues in Political Theory (Oxford University Press, 2008): pp. 149-171

Clayton, M. Justice and Legitimacy in Upbringing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Conly, S. One Child. Do We Have a Right to More? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)

Crittenden, A. The Price of Motherhood (New York: Henry Holt 2001)

England, P. and N. Folbre “The costs of caring”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 561 (1999): 39-51

Engster, D. The Heart of Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Esping-Andersen, G. The Incomplete Revolution (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009)

Fineman, M. The Autonomy Myth (New York: The New Press, 2004)

Folbre, N. Valuing Children (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010)

Folbre, N. Family Time (Routledge, 2004)

Folbre, N. The Invisible Heart. Economics and Family Values (New York: The New Press, 2001)

Folbre, N. Who Pays for the Kids? Gender and the Structures of Constraints (Abingdon” Routledge, 1994)

Folbre, N. “Children as Public Goods,” American Economic Review 84 (1994): 86-90

Fuchs, V. R.  Women’s Quest for Economic Equality (Boston, MA: Harvard UP, 1988)

George, R. “Who Should Bear the Costs of Children?”, Public Affairs Quarterly 1 (1987): 1-42

George, R. “On the External Benefits of Children”, in D. T. Meyers et al. (eds.), Kindred Matters. Rethinking the Philosophy of the Family (Cornell University Press, 1993): pp. 209-217.

Hochschild, A. The Second Shift. Working Parents and the Revolution at Home (New York, Viking, 1989)

Kates, C. “Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation”, Environmental Values 31 (2004): 51-79

Kirby, J. The Price of Parenthood (London: Centre for Policy Studies, 2005)

Meijers, T. Justice in Procreation. Five Essays on Population Size, Parenthood and New Arrivals (2016). PhD manuscript, Université Catholique de Louvain

Olsaretti, S. “Children as Negative Externalities?”, Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (2017): 152–163.

Olsaretti S. “Children as Public Goods?”, Philosophy & Public Affairs 41 (2013): 226-258

Olsaretti, S.  “Choice, Circumstance and the Costs of Children,” in S. De Wijze, M. Kramer, and I. Carter (eds), Hillel Steiner and the Anatomy of Justice (Abingdon, Routledge, 2009): pp. 70-84.

Rakowski, E. Equal Justice (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993)

Scheffler, S. Death and The After-Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)

Steiner, H. and P. Vallentyne “Libertarian Theories of Intergenerational Justice”, in A. Gosseries and L. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009): pp. 50-76.

Strober, M. “Children as a Public Good”, Dissent (2004)

Taylor, R. “Children as Projects and as Persons: A Liberal Antinomy”, Social Theory & Practice 35 (4), 2009: 555-576

Tomlin P. “Should Kids Pay Their Own Way?”, Political Studies 63 (2015): 663-678

Vallentyne, P. “Equality and the Duties of Procreators”, in D. Archard and C. Macleod (eds.), The Moral and Political Status of Children (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002): pp. 195-211

Young, T. “Overconsumption and Procreation: Are They Morally Equivalent?”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2001): 183-191


II - Liberal equality, parental partiality

 and parental upbringing


2. Parents, Children and the Moral Limits of Procreation

This section contains references to articles and books that address moral questions concerning the permissibility of procreation and how individuals ought to be assigned to the roles of “parent” and “child”.

Adams, P. et al (eds.), Children’s Rights (London: Panther Books, 1972)

Almond, B. The Fragmenting Family (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2006)

Aiken, W. and H. LaFollette Whose Child: Children’s Rights, Parental Authority, and State Power (Rowman & Littlefield, 1980)

Anscombe, G. E. M., “Why Have Children?”, Proceedings of the Catholic Philosophical Association 63 (1990): 49-53

Archard, D.  and D. Benatar (eds.), Procreation and Parenthood (Oxford:Oxford University Press 2010)

Archard, D. and C. Macleod The Moral and Political Status of Children (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Archard, D. The Family: A Liberal Defence (Palgrave MacMillan, 2010)

Archard, D. Children, Rights and Childhood (Routledge, 1993)

Archard, D. “Self-Justifying Paternalism”, The Journal of Value Inquiry 27 (1993): 341-352

Archard, D. “What’s Blood Got To Do With It?”, Res Publica 1 (1995): 91-106

Austin, M. “Fundamental Interests and Parental Rights”, International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (2007): 221–36

Austin, M. Conceptions of Parenthood (Aldership: Aldgate 2007)

Austin, M. “The Failure of Biological Accounts of Parenthood”, Journal of Value Enquiry 38 (2004): 499–510

Bainham, A., S. D. Schalter and M. Richards (eds.), What is a Parent? A Socio-Legal Analysis (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2003)

Bainham, A. (ed.), Parents and Children (Farnham: Ashgate, 2008)

Bayne, T. “Gamete Donation and Parental Responsibility” Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (2003): 77–87

Bayne, T. and A. Kolers “Toward a Pluralist Account of Parenthood”, Bioethics 17 (2003): 221-242

Becker, G. S. A Treatise on the Family (Cambridge MA: Harvard UP, 1991, 2nd ed)

Bell N. W., and E. F. Vogel A Modern Introduction to the Family (New York: Free Press, 1968)

Benatar, D. Better Never to Have Been (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Benatar, D. “The Unbearable Lightness of Bringing into Being”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (1999): 173–80

Blake, E., and J. Millum “Parenthood and Procreation”. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2018 Edition)

Blustein, J. Parents and Children: The Ethics of the Family (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982)

Blustein, J. “Procreation and Parental Responsibiltiy”, Journal of Social Philosophy 28 (1997): 79-86

Blustein J. “Doing the Best for One’s Child”,  Theor Med Bioeth 33 (2012): 199-205

Brake, E. “Willing Parents: A Voluntarist Account of Parental Role Obligations” In D. Archard and D. Benatar (eds.). Parenthood and Procreation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010): pp. 151-177

Brake, E. “Creation Theory: Do Genetic Ties Matter?” In S. Hannan, S. Brennan, and R. Vernon (eds.) Permissible Progeny (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015): pp.129-149

Brennan, S. and R. Noggle “Children’s Rights and Family Justice”, Social Theory and Practice, 23 (1997): 1-26

Brighouse, H. and A. Swift “Parents' Rights and the Value of the Family”, Ethics 117 (2006): 80-108

Burtt, S. “Genetic Kinship and Children’s Rights: Do Children have a Right to be raised by their biological parents?”, Protecting Children 16 (2000): 44-50

Carroll, L. The Baby Matrix (LiveTrue Books, 2012)

Cooper, D. The Death of the Family (London: Penguin, 1971)

Dwyer, J. “A Taxonomy of Children's Existing Rights in State Decision Making About Their Relationships”, Wm. and Marry Bill Rts. J. 11 (2003): 845-990

Eekelaar, J., and Šarcević, P. (eds), Parenthood in Modern Society: Legal and Social Issues for the Twenty-First Century (Dordrecht: Marinus Nijhoff, 1993)

Feinberg, J. “Wrongful Life and the Counterfactual Element in Harming”, Social Philosophy and Policy 4 (1987): 145-78

Feldman, S. “Multiple Biological Mothers: The Case for Gestation”, Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (1992): 98–104.

Fredman, S. Women and the Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997)

Fishkin, J. Justice, Equal Opportunity, and the Family (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983)

Fuscaldo, G., “Genetic Ties: Are they Morally Binding?” Bioethics 20 (2006): 64-76

Gheaus, A. “The Right to Parent and Duties Concerning Future Generations”, The Journal of Political Philosophy 24 (2016): 487–508

Gheaus A “Could There Ever Be a Duty to Have Children? In: S. Brennan, S. Hannan and R. Vernon (eds.) Permissible Progeny? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015): pp. 87-106

Gheaus, A. “The Right to Parent One’s Biological Baby”, The Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (2012): 432–55

Gheaus, A. “Arguments for Nonparental Care of Children”, Social Theory and Practice 37 (2011): 483-509

Goodin, R. “Responsibilities for Children’s Well-Being”, in M. Prior and S. Richardson (eds.), No Time to Lose: The Wellbeing of Australia’s Children (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2005): pp. 60-82

Guggeheim, M. What’s Wrong with Children’s Rights? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005)

Hall, B. “The Origin of Parental Rights”, Public Affairs Quarterly 13 (1999): 73-82

Haslanger, S. “Family, Ancestry and Self: What Is the Moral Significance of Biological Ties?” Adoption and Culture 2 (2009)

Hill, J. L. “What Does it Mean to be a ‘Parent’?”, New York University Law Review 353 (1991): 388-417

Kidder, L. H., M. A. Fagan, E. S. Cohn “Giving and Receiving Social Justice in Close Relationships” In M. J. Lerner and S. C. Lerner (eds.) The Justice Motive in Social Behavior (New York: Penguin (1981): pp. 153-178

Kidder, P. “Gift Exchange and Justice in Families”, Journal of Social Philosophy 32 (2001): 157-173

Kolers, A., and T. Bayne “’Are You My Mommy?’ On the Genetic Basis of Parenthood”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2001): 273-285

Kumar, R., “Who Can Be Wronged?” Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (2003): 99-118

Ingoldsby, B. B., S. Smith, and J. E. Miller, J.E. (eds.), Exploring Family Theories (Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2003)

Lauritzen, P. Pursuing Parenthood (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1993)

Liao, M.  The Right to be Loved (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Little, M.  “Abortion, Intimacy, and the Duty to Gestate”, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (1999): 295–312

Macleod, C. “Parental Competency and the Right to Parent” In S. Hannan, S. Brennan, and R. Vernon (eds.) Permissible Progeny (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Mason, M. A., A. Skonlnick, and S. D.Sugardma (eds.), All our Families: New Policies for a New Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998 and 2003)

McClain L. C. The Place of Families: Fostering Capacity, Equality, and Responsibility (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006) 

Mills C. “The Child’s Right to an Open Future?”, Journal of Social Philosophy, 34 (2003): 499-509

Millum J. “How do we Acquire Parental Responsibilities?” Journal of Social Theory and Practic 34 (2008): 71–93

Millum J. “How do we Acquire Parental Rights?” Journal of Social Theory and Practice 36 (2010): 112–132

Mullin A. “Children, Autonomy, and Care”, Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (2007): 536-553

Lindeman, N. H. (ed.) Feminism and Families (London: Routledge, 1997) 

Narayan U. and J. Bartowia (eds.), Having and Raising Children: Unconventional Famillies, Hard Choices and the Social Good (Philadelphia, Penn: Pennsylvania State UP, 1999) 

Narveson J. The Libertarian Idea (Peterborough Ontario, Broadview Press, 2001)

Nelson J. L. “Parental Obligations and the Ethics of Surrogacy: A Causal Perspective”, Public Affairs Quarterly 5 (1991): 49-61

Noggle R. “Special Agents: Children’s Autonomy and Parental Authority”. In  D. Archard & C.M. Macleod (eds.), The Moral and Political Status of Children (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002): pp. 97–118

Olsaretti, S. “Liberal Equality and the Moral Status of Parent-Child Relationships”. D. Sobel, P. Vallentyne, and S. Wall (eds.), Oxford Studies in Political Philosophy, Volume 3 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017)

O’Neill O. ”Children’s Rights and Children’s Lives”, Ethics 98 (1988): 445-463

O’Neill O. and W. Ruddick, (eds), Having Chlidren: Legal and Philosophical Reflections on Parenthood (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979)

Overall C. Why Have Children? The Ethical Debate (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012)

Page E. “Donation, Surrogacy and Adoption”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 2 (1985): 161-172

Page E. “Parental Rights”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 1 (1984): 187-203

Porter L. “Why and How to Prefer a Causal Account of Parenthood”, Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (2014): 182-202

Porter L.”Adoption Is Not Abortion-Lite”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (2012): 63–78

Post S. Spheres of Love: Toward a new Ethics of the Family (Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1994)

Purdy L. In their Best Interests? (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1993)

Richards N. The Ethics of Parenthood (Oxford University Press, 2010)

Roberts, M.  Child Versus Childmaker: Future Persons and Present Duties in Ethics and the Law (Rowman & Littlefield, 1998)

Scarre G. (ed.), Children, Parents and Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Shiffrin S. “Wrongful Life, Procreative Responsibility, and the Significance of Harm”, Legal Theory 5 (1999): 117–48

Schrag F. “The Child and the Moral Order”, Philosophy 52 (1977): 167-177

Schrag F. “Justice and the Family”, Inquiry 19 (1976): 193-208

Schrag F. “The Child’s Status in the Democratic State”, Political Theory 3 (1975): 441-456

Scott E. “Parental Autonomy and Children's Welfare”, WM.& MARY BILL RTS. J. 1071 (2003) [added 10/15, cited by P Vallentyne 2003]

Shoeman, F. “Rights of Families, Rights of Persons, and The Moral Basis of the Family”, Ethics 91 (1980)

Shields, L. “How Bad Can a Good Enough Parent Be?”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (2016): 163-182.

Smilansky, S. “Is There a Moral Obligation to Have Children?” Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1), 41-53

Thomas, L. The Family and the Political Self  (Cambridge UP, 2006)

Vallentyne, P. 2003. Rights and Duties of Childbearing. William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 11, 3: 991–1009

Velleman, D. 2005. Family History. Philosophical Papers 34: 357–78

Walker, J. and N. Stinnett “Parent-Child Relationships: A Decade Review of Research”, Journal of Marriage and the Family 33 (1971)

Vopat, M. “Contractarianism and Children”, Public Affairs Quarterly 17 (2003): 49-63

Walzer, M. Spheres of Justice (Basic Books, 1983~)

Weinberg, R. The Risk of A Lifetime (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)

Young, I.M. “Mothers, citizenship and independence: A critique of pure family values,” Ethics 105 (1995): 535–556


3. The Family, Partiality and Equality of Opportunity

This section contains references to articles and books that address the extent to which parents may display favourable partiality towards their own children and how, if at all, the ideal of equality of opportunity sets limits to such partiality.

Brighouse, H., and Swift, A. “Legitimate Parental Partiality”, Philosophy & Public Affairs 37 (2009): 43–80

Brighouse, H., and Swift, A. Family Values: The Ethics of Parent-Child Relationships (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014)

Clayton, M. “Equal Inheritance: An Anti-Perfectionist View”. In G. Erreygers and J. Cun-liffe (eds.), Inherited Wealth, Justice and Equality (London: Routledge, 2012)

Fishkin, J. Justice, Equal Opportunity and the Family (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983)

Fishkin, J. Bottlenecks. A New Theory of Equal Opportunity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)

Gheaus, A. “What Abolishing the Family Would Not Do”, Critical Review of Inter-national Political and Social Philosophy, Forthcoming

Jeske, D. “Families, Friends and Special Obligations”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (1998): 527-555

Kolodny, N. “Which Relationships Justify Partiality? The Case of Parents and Children”, Philosophy and Public Affairs 38 (2010): 37–75

Macleod, C. “Liberal Equality and the Affective Family”. In Archard A. and C. Macleod (eds.), The Moral and Political Status of Children (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Macleod, C. “Parental Responsibilities in an Unjust World”. In D. Archard and D. Benatar (eds.), Parenthood and Procreation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010)

Macleod, C. “Equality and Family Values: Conflict or Harmony?: Critical Review of International Political and Social Philosophy, Forthcoming

Nagel, T. 1991. Equality and Partiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Munoz Darde V. “Is the family to be abolished then?”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society XCXIX (1999): 37-56

Olsaretti, S. “Liberal Equality and the Moral Status of the Parent-Child Relationship”. In D. Sobel, P.Vallentyne and S. Wall (eds.), Oxford Studies in Political Philosophy Vol. 3 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017): 58-83

Roback Morse, J. “No Families, No Freedom”, Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1999): 290-314

Vallentyne, P. “Equal Opportunity and the Family”, Public Affairs Quarterly 3 (1989): 27-45.


4. Liberal theory and children´s upbringing

This section contains references to articles and books that address questions concerning the moral constraints that regulate how children may and must be raised, such as, for example, whether parents may raise their children with a comprehensive conception of the good life.


Arjo, D. “Public Reason and  Upbringing”, Journal of Philosophy of Education 48 (2014): 370-384

Bou-Habib, P. and S. Olsaretti “Autonomy and Children’s Well-Being”, in A. Bagattini and C Macleod (eds.), The Nature of Children’s Well-Being  (Springer, 2014)

Benporath, S.R. “Autonomy and Vulnerability: On Just Relations Between Adults and Children,” Journal of Philosophy of Education, 37 (2003): 127–145.

Buss E. ”Children's Associational Rights? Why Less is More”, William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 11 (2003): 991–1009

Callan E. ”Autonomy, Child Rearing, and Good Lives”. In C. Macleod and D. Archard (eds.), The Moral and Political Status of Children (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002): pp. 118-141

Cameron, C. “Debate: Clayton on Comprehensive Enrollment”, Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (2012): 341-352.

Clayton, M. (2011). Debate: The Case against the Comprehensive Enrolment of Children. The Journal of Political Philosophy, 20(3), 2011: 353-364

Clayton M (2006) Justice and Legitimacy in Upbringing. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Cormier, A-A “On the Permissibility of Shaping Children’s Values”, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 21 (2018): 333-350

Dwyer, J. Religious schools vs. Children´s Rights (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1998)

Eekelaar, J., Family Law and Personal Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017)

Feinberg. J. “The Child’s Right to an Open Future”, in J. Feinberg, Freedom and Fulfillment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994)

Fowler T. M. "Perfectionism for Children, Anti-Perfectionism for Adults", Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (2014): 305-323

Fowler T. M.  "The Status of Child Citizens", Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (2013): 93-113

Fowler T. M.  "The Problems of Liberal Neutrality in Upbringing", Res Publica 16 (2010): 367-381

Giesinger, J., "Parental Education and Public Reason: Why Comprehensive Enrolment is Justified", Theory and Research in Education 11 (2013): 269-279

Gutmann, A. “Children, Paternalism, and Education: A Liberal Argument”, Philosophy & Public Affairs 9 (1980): 338-358

Lareau, A. Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003)

Lecce S. A. “How Political is the Personal? Justice in Upbringing”, Theory and Research in Education 6 (2008): 21-46

Lotz, M.  “Childhood Obesity and the Question of Parental Liberty”, Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (2004): 288–303

Lotz, M.  “Feinberg, Mills, and the Child’s Right to an Open Future”, Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (2006): 537–551

Lotz, M.  “Parental Values and Children’s Responsibilities”. In C.Mackenzie, W. Rogers and S. Dodds (eds.), Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)

Macedo, S. and I. M. Young (eds.), Child, Family and State (New York: New York University Press, 2003)

McClain L. C. “The Domain of Civic Virtue in a Good Society: Families, Schools, and Sex Equality”, Fordham Law Review 69 (2001): 1616-1666

Millum, J. “The Foundation of the Child’s Right to Open Future”, Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (2014): 522-538

Minow, M. and M. Shalney “Relational Rights and Responsibilities: Revisioning the Family in Liberal Theory and Law”, Hypatia 11 (1996): 179-213

Morgan, J. “Religious Upbringing, Religious Diversity, and the Child’s Right to an Open Future”, Studies in Philosophy and Education 24 (2005): 367–387

Morgan, J.  “A Critical Review of Matthew Clayton: Justice and Legitimacy in Upbringing”, Studies in Philosophy and Education 28 (2009): 79-89

Mullin, A. “Children, Autonomy and Care”, Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (2007): 536–553.

O’Neill, J. The Missing Child in Liberal Theory (Toronto: Toronto UP, 1994)

O’Neill, O. “Children’s Rights and Children’s Lives”, Ethics 98 (1988), 445-63

Taylor R. S. “Children as Projects and Persons: A Liberal Antinomy,” Social Theory and Practice 35 (2009): 555-576

Vopat, M. “Justice, Religion and the Education of Children”, Public Affairs Quarterly 23 (2009): 203-225