"Every great movement must experience three stages: 
 Ridicule, discussion, adoption

          John Stuart Mill


Ideas are the fuel of innovation. Throughout history, many of the great ideas that changed the world were initially dismissed, missunderstood, and outright rejected. Here is an account of some of those within the field of communications. If you know of others, please send me email.

Inventions in Communications

Other Inventions

Lots more facts about inventors and inventions can be found here. Additional instances of rejected breakthrough innovations can be found in Xavier Sala-i-Martin's webpage.


"The reasonable man adapts to the world around him.
 The unreasonable man tries to change the world.
 Therefore, all progress is the result of unreasonable men" 

          George Bernard Shaw