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Available for Interviews at
European Job Market for Economists (EEA), December 18-19, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Allied Social Science Associations (ASSA), January 3-5, San Diego, US
Applied Microeconomics. Health Economics. Family Economics. Gender Economics.
"The impact of the Female Advantage in Education on the Marriage Market"
(Job Market Paper)
In recent years, the traditional gender gap in educational attainment in favor of men has been reversed in many countries. This development may have far-reaching consequences for the family, challenging traditional patterns of union formation and potentially affecting marriage and fertility outcomes. I study the implications of the female advantage in education on family formation through changes in the marriage market. Exploiting the gradual implementation of a school reform in Finland that increased the female-male gap in educational attainment, I isolate the effect of changes in the educational gender gap at the marriage market level, controlling for individuals' own exposure to the reform. The results show that women in more affected marriage markets delayed marriage and childbearing, and were more likely to remain childless. I provide suggestive evidence that these results are driven by the mismatch between high-educated women and low-educated men. These effects can account for a substantial fraction of the recent trends in family structure in Finland.
“The Long-Run Effects of Cesarean Sections" (with Ana Costa Ramón, Lauri Sääksvuori and Mika Kortelainen)
VATT Working Papers 125, October 2019. Revise & Resubmit at the Journal of Human Resources
This paper analyzes the long-term effects of potentially avoidable C-sections on children’s health. Using Finnish administrative data, we document that physicians perform more unplanned C-sections during their regular working hours on days that precede a weekend or public holiday and use this exogenous variation as an instrument for C-sections. We supplement our instrumental variables results with a differences-in-differences estimation that exploits variation in birth mode within sibling pairs and across families. Our results suggest that avoidable unplanned C-sections increase the risk of asthma, but do not affect other immune-mediated disorders previously associated with C-sections.
"Changes in Inequality in Mortality: New Evidence for Spain" (with Libertad González)
Barcelona GSE Working Paper 1050, August 2018.
Reject & Resubmit at Demography
We analyze the evolution of inequality in mortality in Spain during 1990-2014. We focus on age-specific mortality and consider inequality across narrowly defined geographical areas, ranked by average socioeconomic status (SES). We find substantial decreases in mortality over the past 25 years for all age groups, which were particularly pronounced for men, resulting in a sizeable reduction in the gender gap in mortality. Inequality in mortality was low in most age groups, and it did not increase during the recent recession, so that in the 2010’s mortality presents a flat socioeconomic gradient for most age groups. We do detect significant inequality by SES among the elderly, which remains fairly constant over time. We discuss our findings in the context of the recent literature performing comparable analyses for the US, Canada, and France. Inequality levels in Spain are lower than in the US and Canada, and similar to those in France. Our finding of essentially no change in inequality among the elderly contrasts with the increase found in the US and Canada.
Research Papers in Progress
“Gender Roles and Behavioral Gender Gaps” (with Ana Costa Ramón)
“It's About Time: Cesarean Sections and Neonatal Health'' (joint with Ana Costa Ramón, Miquel Serra-Burriel, Carlos Campillo-Artero). Journal of Health Economics, 59. 2018
Cesarean sections have been associated in the literature with poorer newborn health, particularly with a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity. Most studies suffer, however, from potential omitted variable bias, as they are based on simple comparisons of mothers who give birth vaginally and those who give birth by cesarean section. We try to overcome this limitation and provide credible causal evidence by using variation in the probability of having a c-section that is arguably unrelated to maternal and fetal characteristics: variation by time of day. Previous literature documents that, while nature distributes births and associated problems uniformly, time-dependent variables related to physicians' demand for leisure are significant predictors of unplanned c-sections. Using a sample of public hospitals in Spain, we show that the rate of c-sections is higher during the early hours of the night compared to the rest of the day, while mothers giving birth at the different times are similar in observable characteristics. This exogenous variation provides us with a new instrument for type of birth: time of delivery. Our results suggest that non-medically indicated c-sections have a negative and significant impact on newborn health, as measured by Apgar scores, but that the effect is not severe enough to translate into more extreme outcomes