An Integral Study of Intimate Partner's Violence Against Women: Individual and Relational Factors that Increase the Risks of Perpetrating and Experiencing IPV.
Members/membres: Jorge Rodríguez Menés (IP), Clara Cortina, Mathew Creighton, Anna Garriga, M. José González. Pere Jódar, Elena Larrauri, John Palmer, Martí Rovira, Ana Safranoff, Sebastián Sarasa, Cristina Sobrino, Halliki Voolma.
Period/període: March 2017 to March 2019
* This study aims at estimating the risks of perpetrating and experiencing Intimate Partner's Violence (IPV). The project takes a comprehensive approach to the phenomenon by considering the characteristics of both the male aggressors and the female victims, andof their relations of (inter-)dependency and conflict.
The study hopes to provide professionals with frequent contact with aggressors and victims ̶ police, judges, health personnel, etc. ̶ with efficient instruments to detect and treat this problem.
Besides applying a comprehensive approach which can rarely be found in previous research on IPV, the project proposes to use some innovative methodologies for its study, such as: the use of natural experiments to tackle self-selection effects and correctly estimate the impact of sentence severity on offenders' probability of reoffending; the generation of typologies of victims distinguished by the probability of experiencing repeated victimizations with the use of multiple correspondence analysis; the development of ad-hoc software for mobile telephones with which to easily report suspected cases of IPV; or the cross-national investigation of the relational factors that best predict conflict and violence among intimate partners.
Care, retirement and wellbeing of older people across different welfare regimes – CREW
Members/membres: Bruno Arpino (Coordinator). Team: Jordi Gumà and Aïda Solé-Auró. Partner 1 Anne Gauthier Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (Netherlands; NIDI). Team member Tom Emery; Partner 2 Ester Rizzi Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium; UCL). Team member Malgorzata Mikucka UCL. Partner 3 Gustavo De Santis University of Florence (Italy; UFL). Team member Elena Pirani, Silvana Salvini, Daniele Vignoli. Partner 4 Maria Letizia Tanturri University of Padua (Italy; UNIPD). Team member Maria Casgtiglioni, Silvia Meggiolaro, Omar Paccagnella. Partner 5 Rachel Margolis University of Western Ontario (Canada, UWO).
Funding/Finançament: European Project JPI More Years, Better Lives 2016: “Welfare, wellbeing, and Demographic change: Understanding the welfare models”
Period/període: 1/01/2017 – 31/12/2019
Consecuencias socio-demográficas de la Gran Recesión: ¿Nuevas tensiones en las relaciones de clase y de género? (RECECON)
Members/membres: Baizán, Pau (IP1); Cortina, Clara (IP2); Esping-Andresen, Gosta; González López, M. José; Jódar Martínez, Pere; Ratniece, Luize; Rodríguez Menéz, Jorge; Rutigliano, Roberta; Sarasa, Sebastià; Solé Auró, Aïda; Wanli, Nie.
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) (CSO2016-80484-R)
* Our project aims to understand the role played by the economic crises in producing and reproducing gender and social class inequalities. We shall address key socio-demographic dimensions such as income and employment, health, gender relations, and family outcomes. We strongly emphasize the interrelationship between these domains and adopt the framework of a long-run perspective of social change. The main aims of the project include, first, to assess the extent to which job polarization has increased in Europe during the Great Recession. We will pay specific attention to its effects on income distribution and health inequalities. A second aim is to investigate the consequences of the economic recession on parents' transmission of advantage/disadvantage to children. Third, we aim to identify whether and to what extent the crisis years have exacerbated the longer run trend towards polarization in family life; and fourth, we aim to explore to what degree such a trend simultaneously contributes to a reinforcement of income inequalities across households. We tackle these issues with two general hypotheses: a) the long duration of the recession has exacerbated long term trends existing in advanced societies involving social and demographic polarization and increased intra- and inter-generational inequalities; and b) social contexts play a key role in mediating the negative impact of the crises in individual life courses. We will focus in particular on policies in the domains of income protection, labor market, and family. To identify the net effects of the economic crisis on social and demographic outcomes, we opt for a design which allows us to measure conditions and distributions pre- and post- crisis. Since the perspective of our analysis is mainly comparative we rely on three distinct international data sources. Firstly, the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions surveys (EU-SILC); secondly Generations and Gender Surveys (GGS); thirdly European Survey of Working Conditions (ESWC) and the harmonized Labour Force Surveys for the EU countries; finally for a select number of countries we can additionally exploit national panel data sources to answer more specific questions. To identify how context influences individual behavior, we will use individual/micro longitudinal data and apply several types of multivariate analysis (event history techniques, multilevel techniques, etc.). We also intend to explicitly model the role of selection, at the individual and at the country level.
Revising the equality of educational opportunities by social origin: access to undergraduate and postgraduate studies, and distribution by field of studies
Members/membres: Luis Ortiz Gervasi (IP), Queralt Capsada, Daniela Bellani
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) (CSO2016-80399-R)
* The role the university plays as a mechanism of upward social mobility might have been affected by two phenomena that have recently shocked university systems throughout the so called European University Space: the economic crisis (Great Recession) and the fundamental restructuring of those systems the Bologna Reform has entailed. The general objective of this research is to assess the effects these two phenomena has had on the inequality of access and progression at the university level by social origin. In order to attain this general objective, the project has four specific goals: a) to assess the eventual increase in the inequality of access to higher education (university) by social origin; b) to assess the eventual increase of educational segregation by social origin into different fields of study; c) to assess the unequal distribution of the risk of dropout by social origin among university students, prior to an eventual access to postgraduate studies; d) to assess the inequality of opportunities of access to postgraduate studies by social origin, upon completion of undergraduate studies. In order to attain these objectives, the research team intends to use the UNEIX database, which centralizes data on enrolment into graduate and postgraduate degrees at the Catalonian level. The evidence drawn from the analysis of UNEIX data will be complemented by other research techniques. First, two experiments will be carried out among last-year upper secondary students and last-year undergraduate ones. These experiments are aimed at researching the evaluation of costs and benefits made by these students in the year prior to making an important decision in their educational trajectory: enrolling in university graduate or postgraduate studies, respectively. Second, six focus groups (among lecturers, students and parents) will be organized in order to the considerations made by these collectives as regards the costs and benefits of further human capital investment for upper secondary graduates and undergraduate last-year students. It is expected that both the Great Recession and Bologna Reform have had a somehow adverse effect on equality of educational opportunities by social origin.
Estereotipos, prejuicios y discriminación: tres estudios sobre trayectorias laborales de mujeres con hijos pequeños
Grup de Recerca en Sociologia i Demografia (DemoSoc)
Members/membres: Esping-Andersen, Gösta (IP);Baizán, Pau; Bellani, Daniela; Capsada, Queralt; Ciganda, Daniel Andrés; Cordero, Julia; Cortina, Clara; Fernández, Íñigo; Filauro, Stefano; Garriga, Anna; González, M. José; Kraus, Lisa; Levatino, Antonina; Ortiz, Luís; Pessin, Léa; Rodríguez, Jorge; Rutigliano, Roberta, Sarasa, Sebastià.
Funding/finançament: AGENCIA GESTIO AJUTS UNIVERSITARIS I RECERCA (AGAUR)
Demografía familiar y movilidad social
Members/membres: Esping-Andersen, Gösta (IP); Bellani, Daniela; Ciganda, Daniel Andrés; Cordero, Julia; Cortina, Clara: Filauro, Stefano; Ortiz, Luis Maria; Pessin, Léa; Rodríguez, Jorge; Rutigliano, Roberta; Sarasa, Sebastià.
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) (CSO2013-43461-R)
* Social mobility research aims to identify how, and how powerfully, family-of-origin characteristics influence children's life chances. In the classical Becker model (Becker and Tomes, 1986), this depends primarily on inherited abilities, on monetary, and on time investments. Institutional factors, such as the education system, can modify the impact of the latter two.
Studies of inter-generational mobility pursue, broadly speaking, two distinct approaches. The first builds on the widely used O -> E -> D model and attempts to identify the direct (O -> D) and indirect (O -> E, and E ->) effect of socio-economic origin (O) on destination status (D) via O's effect on education (E). This approach is primarily interested in estimating the strength of the origin-destination association and less in the question of exactly how it functions.
The second type of approach is, in contrast, primarily concerned with the how question and focuses therefore on the precise mechanisms within families that influence child outcomes. In this tradition, however, it is very rare to find a study which connects social origin conditions to destinies - primarily because of the scarcity of data. Rather, the focus is on family-of-origin characteristics (such as income or education), parental inputs (such as time dedication), on demographic influences (such as parental divorce or single parenthood), and how these may be modified or accentuated by the institutional environment (such as child care attendance, or education systems). Rather than correlating origins with destinies, the focus here is primarily on more immediate childhood outcomes such as cognitive abilities or transitions in the educational system. For an overview, see Danziger and Waldfogel, (2000).
These two approaches have only rarely been fused. This is primarily for two reasons: one, the two research traditions adopt very different kinds of methodological techniques; two, there has been a basic lack of data that would permit us to answer both the how and the how powerfully questions at once. In order to identify detailed family influences on child destinies we need longitudinal panel data with very rich data on family effects across the life cycle.
We shall in this project exploit the possibilities of doing so that come from a (unfortunately limited) number of international panel data sources, namely the German GSOEP, the American PSID, and Danish registry-based panel data. In all three cases we can follow cohorts born around 1980 for roughly 30 years.
As recent research has demonstrated, O-> E and O ->D effects are non-linear, i.e. their strength varies across the population. In fact, the influence of family effects on child outcomes such as cognitive skills and school transitions is particularly strong among very low-SES populations. A key objective of the project is to identify such asymmetric effects both for educational transitions and subsequent adult career attainment.
It is also very clear that conditions in early childhood are by far the most decisive for children's later life chances. We will therefore focus on early childhood factors, in particular those related to family structure, parenting inputs, and to external potentially compensatory inputs (e.g. high quality child care attendance).
Migration systems in comparative perspective: Mexico-USA and Subsaharan Africa-Europe (MIGRASYS)
Members/membres: Baizán, Pau (IP); Arpino, Bruno; Carrasco, Ignacio (University of Uppsala); Creighton, Mathew J.; Levatino, Antonina; Liu, Mao-Mei; Malancu, Natalia; Riosmena, Fernando (University of Colorado at Boulder).
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (CSO2012-37920)
La segregació espacial de la pobresa a Catalunya: estructura i dinàmica de la desigualtat social
Members/membres: Sarasa, Sebastià (IP); Coll, Francesc (IERMB); Navarro, Lara (IERMB); Porcel, Sergio (IERMB).
Funding/finançament: RecerCaixa 2012
* This research has two objectives. First, we want to get a territorial map of social exclusion and vulnerability in Catalonia. Second, we want to analyze the evolution of the Catalan social structure and its territory between 2001 and 2011. Motivation is twice. On one hand, poverty and social exclusion have never been drowned on the Catalan territory; hence, our project is pioneering, not only the output but also the methods. On the other side, we are going to participate on the debate about inequalities and poverty trends. Is poverty less constrained by social class nowadays? Is there any greater social polarization? How those transformations are changing cities shapes, are they becoming 'dual-cities' or'quartered-cities'?
We are going to get data from PHOGUE (2001), EU/SILC (2006) and ECVHP (2011) as well as additional data from other sources as the Catalan Victimization Survey (2001-2011). Estimates from those data bases will be imputed to local areas using the information available in the 2001 and 2011 Census.
The Spanish Fertility Gap
Members/membres: Esping Andersen, Gosta (IP); Arpino, Bruno; Baizán, Pau; Bellani, Daniela; Ciganda, Daniel; Creighton, Mathew; Delclos, Carlos Eric; Domínguez, Marta; González, M.José; Luppi, Francesca; Pessin, Lea; Rutigliano, Roberta; Van Damme, Maike (UPF members).
Castro, Teresa (CSIC); Cordero, Julia (CSIC); Krauss, Lisa (CSIC); Martín, Teresa (CSIC) (outside members).
Funding/finançament: La Caixa
* The gap between preferred and observed fertility is comparably very large in Spain. All evidence suggests that child preferences have remained quite stable. This suggests that fertility decline cannot be attributed to factors like value change. We take as our point of departure the link between postponed motherhood and fertility. Why is it that rather similar ages at first births produce such large differences in overall fertility across countries - with TFRs around 1.9-2.0 in France, UK and Scandinavia and below 1.4 in Italy and Spain? There are well-documented factors, such as labor market and employment conditions, and also welfare state effects. We shall probe into two additional, and far less researched, factors. The first is related to changing gender relations within partnerships. Here the hypothesis is that more equitable and symmetric relations are becoming a precondition for births. Moreover, the role of fathers is undergoing change. Fertility depended traditionally on their breadwinner capacity while, today, women's fertility decisions are increasingly a function of their own economic status. The second is related to the correlates of fertility, marriage and divorce behavior in particular. In some countries, Scandinavia in particular, fertility recovery occurs on the backdrop of rising marriage and falling divorce rates among the higher educated. Also, as in France, co-habitation has become a functional equivalent of marriage, also in terms of fertility. The question is whether Spain is moving in a similar direction.
Stratified Family Dynamics: polarizing trends in couple behaviour and parenting ("Family polarization")
Members/membres: Esping Andersen, Gosta (IP); Baizán, Pau; Bellani, Daniela; Cortina, Clara ; Di Nallo, Alessandro; González, M. José; Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Pessin, Léa; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ratniece, Luize; Rutigliano, Roberta; Sarasa, Sebastià.
Aasvee, Arnstein (Bocconi); Bernardi, Fabrizio (EUI); Billari, Francesco (Bocconi); Bonke, Jens (Copenhagen); Felfe, Christina (U. St. Gallen, Switzerland); Härkönen, Juho (Stockholm); Holm, Anders (Copenhagen); Hsin, Amy (USA); Liefbroer, Aat (Netherlands); Prince Cooke, Lynn (Surrey); Ozcan, Berkay (Yale)
Funding/finançament: IDEES. European Research Council Advanced Grants (ERC).
*The project applies a multiple equilibrium framework to understand ongoing transformations in family demography and their consequences for social inequalities. Associated with the changing economic role of women emerge novel family forms that replace the conventional male breadwinner model. The transition is very much in flux, producing multiple equilibria some of which are unstable and associated with inefficient and inequitable couple specialization. Based on long micro panel data for four countries at different stages of the transition, the study will address three parallel issues. One, identifying equilibrium shifts from the traditional towards more gender symmetric family forms, with particular focus on the endogenously driven dynamics that drive populations towards a gender egalitarian equilibrium. Two, analyzing the potentially polarizing demographic correlates of changing family behaviour in particular in terms of marital choice and couple stability. Three, testing hypotheses regarding family polarization with respect to parental investments in children and how these, in turn, influence children's life chances.
Análisis de múltiples equlibrios en la familia
Members/membres: Esping Andersen, Gosta (IP); Bellani, Daniela; Boertien, Diederik; Delclos, Carlos Eric; Donato, Luisa; Fernández, Mariña; Gracia, Pablo; Luppi, Francesca; Malancu, Natalia; Obucina, Ognjen; Ortiz Gervasi, Luis; Rodríguez, Jorge; Safranoff, Anna; Sarasa, Sebastià; Vidal, Elena; Wagner, Sander.
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICCINN CSO2010-19062).
* The main objective of this research is to apply a multiple equilibrium framework to test key hypotheses regarding family behaviour and its broader effects on social inequality. We focus in particular on two dimensions: couple relationships and parental investment in children. Our point of departure is the evidence from recent demographic and sociological research that, on both dimensions, there are trends towards polarization. Our research on couple relations will examine two key dimensions: gender specialization in domestic tasks and labour supply, and the stability of partnerships. Our research on parenting will focus on child outcomes, in particular with regard to educational attainment and early career transitions. Of special interest here is the growing gender-gap and what might be called the 'boy-problem': the large proportion of boys with problematic social behaviour and inadequate schooling.
Employment and Family Decisions in the transition to the first child in Europe (Transparent)
Members/membres: González, M. José (IP); Amigot, Patricia; Botia Morillas, Carmen; Dominguez, Marta; Jurado, Teresa; Lapuerta, Irene; Manel Monferrer, Jordi; Romero, Alfons.
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (Plan Nacional de I+D, proyecto CSO2010-17811/SOCI).
* The main objective of this research is to analyse the negotiation processes through which double income couples (where both partners are enrolled in the labour market) distribute paid and unpaid work (household tasks and child care). We will focus on the transition to the first child an take into account different instituitonal contexts: Spain, Sweden, Netherlands and Germany. The transition to the first child is a key moment in couple's bargaining and decision making concerning the articulation of career and childbearing plans. The arrival of the first child has been related to an increase in gender inequalities inside families, and these inequalities have an important impact on women's employment prospects.
The research strategy that is proposed here is very innovative at the moethodological level, combining both quantitative and qualitative data, based on in-depth interviews in two points in time: during the first pregnancy and one year after the birth of the child. Following couples through time enables us to analyse discrepancies between social expectations and practices. An additional value of this project stems from the comparison across countries, which will allowfor the analysis of family models and institutional settings and their effect on the gendered division of work. Similar studies have been carried out in Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands, and the addition of Spain would widen the perspective to include a representative Southern European country.
Grup de Recerca en Sociologia i Demografia (DemoSoc)
Members/membres: Esping Andersen, Gosta (IP); Baizán, Pau; Boertien, Diederik; Creighton, Mathew; Delclós, Carlos Eric; Fernández Reino, Mariña; Domínguez, Marta; González Ferrer, Amparo; González, M. José; Gracia, Pablo; Guiu, Jordi; Jodar Martínez, Pere; Liu, Mao-Mei ; Luppi, Francesca; Obucina, Ognjen; Ortiz Gervasi, Luis; Rodríguez, Jorge; Sarasa, Sebastià; Wagner, Sander.
Funding/finançament: Agència de Gestió d´Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR-2009 SGR 1069)
Migrations Between Senegal and Spain: An Analysis of Migration, Family and Labor Market Trajectories of Senegalese Immigrants in Spain
[Migraciones Entre Senegal y España (MESE): Análisis de las trayectorias migratorias, familiares y laborales de los inmigrantes senegaleses en España]
Members/membres: Baizán, Pau (IP); Beauchemin, Cris; González, Amparo; Levatino, Antonina; Liu, Mao-Mei; Obucina, Ognjen.
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. VI Plan Nacional de Investigación Científica, Desarrollo e Innovación Tecnológica. CSO2009-12816 (subprograma SOCI)
* The project Migrations Between Senegal and Spain (MESE) aims to contribute to overcome the existing lack of understanding of the patterns and determinants of African migration to Europe by providing statistically representative data for the Senegalese population residing in Spain (both documented and undocumented), which can be analyzed within the wider context of the data collected in the framework of the VII Framework Program Project Migration Between Africa and Europe (MAFE) Project.
Its main objectives are: 1. To conduct a biographic survey representative of the Senegalese population living in Spain, which will enlarge the one already conducted in 2008 and will allow then for separated and reliable analyses of the Spanish case. 2. To describe the patterns of migration between Senegal and Spain, in comparative perspective. 3. To explain the determinants of the individuals' migration decisions (including not only the decision to leave Senegal but also the return migration and circulation), by paying especial attention to the role played by chaging immigration policies and economic situation both at origin and destination in shaping those decisions. 3. To gain a deeper understaning of the patterns of socio-economig integration of Senegalese migrants and their relationship with changes in their legal status. 4. To analyze the interactions between family formation and international migration, including both nuptiality and fertility patterns.
Género y marginación: victimizacion y delincuencia (Social Exclusión and Gender: Victimization and Crime)
Funding/finançament: Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Plan Nacional de I + D (DER2009-08344)
*The first goal of this research project is to try to understand the intersection between social class and gender, as risk factors, for victims of domestic violence. Gender is clearly a risk factor for crimes in intimate relations. We posit that situations of social exclusion-like those accompanying a migrant status-interact with gender to make women even more vulnerable to domestic violence. We would like to test which factors, social exclusion or culture, better explain this greater gender vulnerabilty. We also want to explore how the penal system reacts to these groups of socially excluded victims of domestic violence. The second goal regards the batterer. We think that social exclusion-migrant status-is also relevant for predicting the violence done by the perpetrator. Finally, we want to explore how the penal system reacts to this groups of excluded criminals.
Migrations Between Africa and Europe (MAFE)
Members/membres: Baizán, Pau; Levatino, Antonina; Liu, Mao-Mei; Obucina,Ognjen.
Funding/finançament: European Commission, VII Framework Programme
* The MAFE research programme aims to improve our understanding of migration dynamics between Africa and Europe and the quality of the related migration policies. Migration is not simply a one-way flow from Africa to Europe; on the contrary, return migration, circulation, and transnational actions are significant and need to be recognised in policy design. Departing from this preposition, MAFE has created a unique dataset on Afro-European migration with biographical information collected at the household level in both sending and receiving countries. Advanced analyses of the survey data included in the MAFE project will provide policy makers with new insights into the changing patterns and determinants of migration and circulation between the two continents, and will permit to enhance the management of migration at both national and European levels.
Efectos distributivos del nuevo rol de la mujer
Members/membres: Esping Andersen, Gosta (IP); Baizán, Pau; Billingsley, Sunnee; Domínguez, Marta; García de Polavieja, Javier; Garriga, Anna; González, Amparo; González, M. José; Gracia, Pablo; Guiu, Jordi; Jódar Martínez, Pere; Kucel, Aleksander; Lapuerta, Irene; Ortiz Gervasi, Luis; Ozcan, Berkay; Rodríguez, Jorge; Rivera, Carles; Sarasa, Sebastià; Vidal, Sergi.
Funding / finançament: Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Plan Nacional de I + D (SEJ2007-62684/SOCI)
Period / període: 2007-2010
Equidad distributiva en el acceso de los recursos de tiempo en España: el caso de las excedencias para atender a la primera infancia y a familiares dependientes
Members / membres: Sarasa, Sebastià (IP), Baizán,Pau; González, M. José; Jódar Martínez, Pere; Lapuerta, Irene.
Funding / finançament: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales (FIPROS/2006/20)
Period / període: 2006-2007
Economic Change, Quality of Life and Social Cohesion (EQUALSOC) Network of Excellence
Members/membres: Esping Andersen, Gosta; Baizán, Pau; Billingsley, Sunnee; Domínguez, Marta; González, Amparo; González, M. José; Inanc, Hande; Kucel, Aleksander; Lapuerta, Irene; García Polavieja, Javier; Ortíz Gervasi, Luis; Ozcan, Berkay; Rodríguez, Jorge; Sakarya, Eser; Sarasa, Sebastià; Vidal, Sergi.
Funding / finançament: European Commission's 5th Framework Programme.
Period / període: 2005-2010
Estrategias de empleo y renta familiar
Members / membres: Esping Andersen, Gosta (IP); Baizán, Pau; Brodmann, Stefanie ; González, M. José; González Luna, Libertad; Nazio, Tiziana; Sarasa, Sebastià; Villanueva, Ernesto.
Funding / finançament: Fundación BBVA
Period / període: 2005-2007
Riesgos y oportunidades a lo largo del curso de vida en las sociedades post-industriales
Funding / finançament: Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Plan Nacional de I + D (SEC2003-02699)
Period / període: 2003-2006
Patrones de Fecundidad en Europa: interrelaciones socio-económicas y contextuales
Funding / finançament: Fundación BBVA
Period / període: 2003-2005
Hogares, desigualdad y empleo en la sociedad post-industrial: españa en el contexto internacional
Funding / finançament: Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Plan Nacional de I + D (SEC2000-1697-C02-01).
Period / període: 2000-2003