Interleaved intramuscular stimulation with minimally overlapping electrodes evokes smooth and fatigue resistant forces

  • Authors
  • Eladly A, Del Valle J, Minguillon J, Mecrcadel B, Becerra-Fajardo L, Navarro X, Ivorra A
  • UPF authors
  • IVORRA CANO, ANTONIO; MINGUILLON CAMPOS, JESUS; BECERRA FAJARDO, LAURA; MERCADAL CAVALLER, BORJA;
  • Type
  • Scholarly articles
  • Journal títle
  • Journal of Neural Engineering
  • Publication year
  • 2020
  • Volume
  • 17
  • Number
  • 4
  • Pages
  • 1-20
  • ISSN
  • 1741-2560
  • Publication State
  • Published
  • Abstract
  • Objective. It is known that multi-site interleaved stimulation generates less muscle fatigue compared to single-site synchronous stimulation. However, in the limited number of studies in which intramuscular electrodes were used, the fatigue reduction associated with interleaved stimulation could not consistently be achieved. We hypothesize that this could be due to the inability to place the intramuscular electrodes used in interleaved stimulation in locations that minimize overlap amongst the motor units activated by the electrodes. Our objective in the present study was to use independent intramuscular electrodes to compare fatigue induced by interleaved stimulation with that generated by synchronous stimulation at the same initial force and ripple. Approach. In the medial gastrocnemius muscle of an anesthetized rabbit (n = 3), ten intramuscular hook wire electrodes were inserted at different distances from the nerve entry. Overlap was measured using the refractory technique and only three electrodes were found to be highly independent. After ensuring that forces obtained by both stimulation modalities had the same ripple and magnitude, fatigue induced during interleaved stimulation across three independent distal electrodes was compared to that obtained by synchronously delivering pulses to a single proximal electrode. Main results. Contractions evoked by interleaved stimulation exhibited less fatigue than those evoked by synchronous stimulation. Twitch force recruitment curves collected from each of the ten intramuscular electrodes showed frequent intermediate plateaus and the force value at these plateaus decreased as the distance between the electrode and nerve entry increased. Significance. The results indicate that interleaved intramuscular stimulation is preferred over synchronous intramuscular stimulation when fatigue-resistant and smooth forces are desired. In addition, the results suggest that the large muscle compartments innervated by the primary intramuscular nerve branches give rise to progressively smaller independent compartments in subsequent nerve divisions.
  • Complete citation
  • Eladly A, Del Valle J, Minguillon J, Mecrcadel B, Becerra-Fajardo L, Navarro X, Ivorra A. Interleaved intramuscular stimulation with minimally overlapping electrodes evokes smooth and fatigue resistant forces. Journal of Neural Engineering 2020; 17(4): 1-20.
Bibliometric indicators
  • 0 times cited Scopus
  • 0 times cited WOS
  • Índex Scimago de 1.594(2020)