Instruction for authors

Contact and submissions: jose.perez@upf.edu

Submission of articles are reviewed per blind peer-reviews. In case of discrepancies between reviewers, the manuscript is sent to a third party who decides the publication or non-publication.

No charger for processing manuscripts.

Plagiarism detection policy. Upon receiving the manuscript and before its eventual publication, a plagiarism detection system (Turnitin) is carried out.

APA Style Guidelines

Revised 9/1/10

Kevin E. Hughes, Ph.D.

Significant contributions to this guide were made by Jessica Grubaugh and Dr. Ronald Bolender

Copyright © 2010 Mount Vernon Nazarene University Jetter School of Business

Introduction

A writing style is necessary in an academic program in order to ensure consistency for students as they write research papers and for instructors assigning and grading these papers. Today many undergraduate and graduate business programs subscribe to the style guidelines published in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA writing style provides a very specific way of organizing, and writing a research paper. The purpose of this guide is to provide students and instructors with uniform guidelines and criteria for writing and grading research papers. Please note: This resource should be accessed online at https://admv.mvnu.edu/apastyle.pdf. Any necessary revisions to the Mount Vernon Nazarene University APA Style Guidelines will be made to the online version. Instructors will use the online version as the guide for grading.

This document contains two sections. The first section contains APA style guidelines and examples. The last section is a sample research paper to illustrate what is expected of students regarding APA form and style.

Authors of the works published in the Journal are allowed to reproduce them in other media, provided mention is made of their previous publication in Fair Play. Journal of Philosohy, Ethics and Sports Law.

Grammar and Punctuation

The rules of good English should be carefully followed with attention to the writing of complete sentences, correct spelling, and the use of proper verb forms. Personal pronouns (I, me, my, we, etc.) are not appropriate in research. In all research papers, the writer should refer to themselves in the third person form such as 'the writer', 'the author', 'the researcher', or 'the investigator'. The rules for punctuation are to follow standard English practice.

Font

All papers should be typed in Times New Roman, 12 point font size.

Margins

Margin settings should be one inch for all sides. Be sure to check the margin between the header and the top of the page.

Headers

All papers should have a header for easy identification. The header should consist of the first four or five words of the title. The header should be flush left. Page numbers should be inserted beginning with the title page and be flush right. On the title page only, the header should include the words "Running head:" before the title. (This is a change from APA 5).

Spacing

Space once after non-ending punctuation like commas, colons and semicolons., There should be two spaces after every ending punctuation mark like periods, question marks and exclamation marks. (This is a change from APA 5).

Exception: Do not space after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., a.m., i.e., U.S.), around colons in ratios (16:1), around hyphens (pre-post, pp. 75-79), or after a negative sign (-2.35). Space before and after the +, -, and = signs but not around the / or ( ) signs when they are used as algebraic symbols for multiplication or division, i.e. (a + b(x) - y/2 = z).

Abbreviations

Write out long, frequently used terms the first time, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Do not use periods between the letters of abbreviations.

We all attend Mount Vernon Nazarene University (MVNU)... Thereafter, use only the abbreviation:

We all hope to graduate soon from MVNU.

In citations and references use the following abbreviations followed by periods:

Vol. = volume, Vols. = volumes p. = page, pp. = pages

Ed. = editor, Eds. = editors

ed. = edition

Rev. = revised

No. = number

n.d. = no date available

chap. = chapter

trans. = translator

2nd = second, 3rd = third, etc... (superscript is optional, but be consistent) pt. = part

Capitalization

Capitalize formal names or titles used in the text:

Dr. Robert Roller serves as the Dean of the Jetter School of Business.

Do not capitalize non-specific terms:

The students are enrolled in business courses.

In headings, titles, and subtitles (excluding reference lists) capitalize major words and all other words of four letters or more.

The Effect of the International Business Institute on the Cross-Cultural Adaptability of Business Students: An Evaluative Study.

For instructions on capitalization in references, see "General Rules for the Reference List"

Hyphenation

Do not use hyphenation to divide a word that will not fit at the end of a line of text. Type the complete word at the beginning of the next line of text.

Do not hyphenate superlatives:

well developed, best made, best written

Do not hyphenate common prefixes: postwar, multifaceted, nonsupport

Hyphenate adjectival phrases preceding nouns:

two-way analysis, role-play exercises, employee-based plan

Hyphenate if the base word or term is an abbreviation or a compound term: non-US, pro-labor union, post-cold war

Hyphenate if the words can be misunderstood otherwise: re-pair, un-ionized, co-worker

Numbers

Spell out common fractions and expressions:

one-fourth, two-thirds, Fourth of July, Twelve Apostles

Spell out cardinal numbers that begin sentences: Eighty students are enrolled in this program.

Spell out numbers that are non-exact, or below 10, or are not grouped with numbers over 10: one-tailed test, five students, three months

Use numerals for numbers 10 and above, or lower numbers grouped with numbers over 10: From 6-15 students take each course.

Use a combination of Arabic and written numbers for back-to-back modifiers: There were eight 9 year olds in the play.

To make plurals add s only, without an apostrophe:

In the 1990s, temperatures averaged in the 80s.

Treat ordinal numbers as cardinal numbers:

first, second, third, fourth..., tenth, 11th, 12th, 13th ..., 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, ...

(superscript is optional, but be consistent)

Use similar combinations for large numbers:

Over 200 million customers come through the store yearly.

Use numerals for exact statistical references:

divide by 2, select the top 10%, multiply by 3.25 Use the percent symbol (%) only with Arabic numerals:

15%, 22%, 99%

Write out the word percent when used with written numbers:

fifteen percent, two percent, nine percent

Parts of the Paper

A title page is expected for every research paper. The specific parts of the title page are the header, title, author, and name of the college. On the title page only, the header should begin with the words "Running head:" flush left before the 4-5 word abbreviated version of the title which should be in all caps. (See sample paper)

A title should be a concise summary of the information contained in the paper. Recommended length for a title is no more than 12 words. The title should be typed in upper and lower case letters, centered in the upper half of the title page. The author's name should be centered below the title using the first and last name. The name of the institution should be centered below the author's name. Other items may be included on the title page as prescribed by the instructor. (See sample paper)

Header

The purpose of the header is to allow a person to reorganize a research paper if several papers are mixed. A header allows an unstapled paper to be assembled in the proper order. Each page must have a page number and a header. A header is a short version of the title. The header must not be more than 50 characters in length. It is usually the first four or five words of the title, and should be in all capital letters. The words "Running head:" should be used only in the header of the title page. (This is a change from APA 5)

Abstract

An abstract is not always required, but assume it is unless the syllabus or instructor says otherwise. An abstract is a synopsis of the research paper. The entire abstract should be one paragraph, justified left, and consisting of 150 to 250 words.

Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Tables

A table of contents, or a list of figures or tables is rarely required but should be used when a research paper consists of several chapters, sections, appendices, tables, or figures. The professor should specify if a table or list is required. (Use the 'Table of Contents' at the front of this guide for an example of how to format a 'Table of Contents', 'List of Tables', or 'List of Figures').

Body of Paper

Beginning after the title page, the header should contain only the page number and the running head. The page number should be flush right. The header, with a 3 to 5 word version of the title should be flush left. (This is a change from APA 5)

The title of the paper should serve as the first heading above a short introduction. Do not use the word "Introduction" as a heading.

References

Sources used for the research paper are listed on a page called 'References' (not a bibliography). The heading 'Reference' (for only one source) or 'References' (for multiple sources) should be centered at the top of the first page of references. Samples for specific kinds of references are given later in this guide and in the sample paper.

Note: AP A does not allow footnotes but uses 'in-text citations' instead to tell the reader where the information was found. The only sources that can be listed on the reference page are those that are cited in the text of the research paper. Do not list any source on the reference page that was not referred to in the text of the paper.

Appendices

Each appendix should be titled. If there is only one appendix, it should be labeled 'Appendix'. If there are multiple appendices label them Appendix A, Appendix B, etc... The label 'Appendix' or 'Appendix A' should be centered at the top of the first page of each appendix. The header should look like the header for the body of the paper. All appendices must be cited in the text. (See sample paper).

Order of the Parts of the Paper

Not all of these components are required in every paper. You should always assume a title page, body, and reference list is required. Occasionally the syllabus or the instructor will call for additional parts such as an abstract, or a table of contents or a list of figures or tables. The order in which the parts of the paper should appear in the paper (if they are needed) is as follows:

title page, abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, body of paper, reference list, appendices.

Formatting the Paper

For detailed instructions on formatting papers to comply with the following APA guidelines please click on the Help tab in Microsoft Word and open Microsoft Word Help and follow the detailed step by step instructions provided there for your specific version of Microsoft Word.

Font

All papers should be typed in Times New Roman font, using 12 point font size. Using one particular font provides consistency in the quantity of content in papers.

Spacing between lines

All lines of a research paper should be double spaced. This includes all body text, headings, and references. There should also be two spaces after every ending punctuation mark, including periods. (This is a change from APA 5).

Margins

The margin settings are one inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, and right).

Headers

All papers should have a header for easy identification. The header should consist of the first four or five words of the title. The header should be flush left. (This is a change from APA 5) Page numbers should be inserted beginning with the title page and be flush right.

See the sample paper included at the back of this guide to see how the header should look.

Level Headings

Level headings are used in APA style papers to organize content. Two and three level headings are the most commonly used and are described here. The APA manual gives examples of four and five level headings as well. The way to determine the appropriate number of levels for a particular paper is to find the section of the paper that has the most sub levels. Note: The title should be formatted the same as the highest level of heading used in the paper. (The sample paper included at the back of this guide illustrates three levels of headings.) (Bold headings is a change from APA 5.)

For papers with two levels of headings:

For papers with three levels of headings:

APA Style Guide 10

Level 2 Heading

(flush left, initial caps, bolded)

Title of Paper (centered, initial caps, not bolded)

Level 1 Heading

(centered, initial caps, bolded)

Level 2 Heading

(flush left, initial caps, bolded)

Level 3 heading.

Title of Paper (centered, initial caps, not bolded)

Level 1 Heading

(centered, initial caps, bolded)

(indented, bolded, the first word and any proper nouns capitalized, ends with a period)

Seriation

When elements in a series are listed there are two acceptable formats, seriation within a paragraph and seriation in separate paragraphs.

Seriation within a paragraph

Identify elements in a series by lowercase letters (not italicized) in parenthesis. Within a sentence use commas to separate elements that do not have internal commas.

The employee's choices were (a) work alone, (b) work together, and (c) not work at all. If the elements in the list have internal commas, then use semicolons to separate the elements.

We used three different reward programs: (a) pay for parts, on a daily basis; (b) pay by hours, on a weekly basis; and (c) pay by merit, on a monthly basis.

Seriation in separate paragraphs:

When listing itemized conclusions or steps in a procedure identify them using an Arabic number followed by a period. Do not enclose the numbers with parenthesis. Bulleted paragraphs should be indented as shown below.

The following list of three recommendations was the result of the study:

1. Treat all employees equally. The results indicated that when employees (paragraph

continues).

2. Pay an honest wage for an honest day's work. The research concluded that (paragraph

continues).

3. Treat others as you wish to be treated. The golden rule applies in the workplace

(paragraph continues).

General Rules for In-Text Citations

APA uses citations in text to give credit to the authors/editors/organizations of information used. Cite exact quotes, data, and paraphrased information taken from sources in the text of the paper. (See citation examples in the following section and in the sample paper)

1. A citation in text should always be easily matched to the corresponding reference on the reference page. A citation should always match the author/editor or title, which ever appears first on the alphabetized reference page for that corresponding source.

2. When citing paraphrased information from a book, list the author's last name and the year of the publication within the sentence or paragraph in which the work is used

3. To cite a direct quote from any printed source always include the page number(s) indicating exactly where the quote was found. For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the paragraph symbol. If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph within that section of the document to direct the reader to the location of the material.

4. If no author or editor is listed for a source, use the first three to five words of the title of the source (as it will be listed on the reference page) in lieu of the author/editor's last name.

5. When citing websites or other material without authors or apparent titles, create a logical title (preferably a brief descriptive title) of the work as a title (to be used in the citations and on the reference list) and then follow step 5 above, i.e. Annual volunteer participation report for 2002-2003. ***Do not use the URL for the in-text citation***

6. If no publishing date is available for a work use n.d. in lieu of the publication year just as it is used on the reference page.

7. End punctuation for a sentence should follow the last parenthesis unless it is a block quotation.

Citing personal communications

Citation Examples

Personal communications can be letters, memos, electronic communications, personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc. Note: Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included on the reference list. Cite personal communications in the text only.

Provide the initials and the surname of the person, and provide as accurate a date for the communication as possible

The person's name may be part of the text.

P. K. Bowles (personal communication, February 25, 2004) stated it was difficult telling employees that their jobs were going to be moved to Mexico.

The person's name can also be in the citation.

It was reportedly difficult telling employees that their jobs were being moved to Mexico (P.K. Bowles, personal communication, February 25, 2004).

Citing paraphrased material

If the author is mentioned in the sentence, then use only the last name followed immediately by the publication year in parentheses. Notice that the date comes before the punctuation that would normally follow the name.

According to Kozloff (1996), these same respondents reported that personality factors and interpersonal style were the primary culprits.

Another way to conversationally refer to a source

Kozloff (1996) states that these same respondents reported that personality factors and interpersonal style were the primary culprits.

Copyright © 2010, 2003 Mount Vernon Nazarene University Graduate and Professional Studies

APA Style Guide 13

An in-text reference to an author not mentioned by name in the sentence

In this case the source should be cited at the end of the sentence, inside the final punctuation. These same respondents reported that personality factors and interpersonal style were the primary culprits (Kozloff, 1996).

When the same source is referred to multiple times in the same paragraph

Only cite the year of publication the first time a source is referred to in a paragraph.

The first time the author is referred to in the paragraph cite it including the year (Eschbach, 1997). Each time the author is referred to thereafter in that paragraph just use the last name without the year (Eschbach). If Eschbach is cited again in the next paragraph start all over again by using the name and year the first time that source is used.

Two authors for one source

If a work has two authors, always list both names in every citation. In parenthesis the citation should look like this:

...was the major difference according to the study (Brislin & Bahwuk, 1999). When mentioning the authors in the sentence use 'and' instead of '&':

Brislin and Bahwuk (1999) stated the major difference.... or

According to Brislin and Bahwuk (1999) the major difference...

Three or four authors for one source

If the source has three or four authors, use all the names the first time the source is cited in the paper and thereafter use only the first author followed by et al.

The first citation:

...according to the study (Selmer, Torbiorn & de Leon, 1998). or

Selmer, Torbiorn and deLeon (1998) stated...

Subsequent citations in the paper:

...according to the study (Selmer, et al., 1998). or

Selmer, et al. (1998) studied...

Five or more authors

If the work has five or more authors refer to them by first author et al every time they are referred to in the paper.

(Smith, et al., 2010).

Multiple sources in one sentence

If more than one work is cited in the same sentence in parentheses, show all the authors in the same set of parentheses separated by semicolons. The following example shows three sources cited in the same sentence.

...were the identical conclusions of three independent studies (Black, Gregerson,

Mendenhall, & Stroh, 1999; Eschbach, 1997; Mendenhall & Oddou, 1991).

Multiple works by the same author in the same publication year

If you cite multiple works by the same author(s) that have the same publication year, add letters to the publication year to discriminate between the sources alphabetically in the text and on the reference page. Put these same letters on the publication years on the reference page.

...according to the earlier study (Black & Mendenhall, 1991a).

... according to the subsequent study (Black & Mendenhall, 1991b). or

Black and Mendenhall (1991a) found that...but in the subsequent study, Black and Mendenhall (1991b) determined...

Citing direct quotations from books or journals

Direct quotations should be used sparingly. Paraphrasing is preferable to quoting. Quotes should be used only when the quote is clearer or more impactful than putting the information into your own words.

With a direct quotation, use the same citation rules as above but add the page number to the citation. If the quotation is at the end of the sentence, insert the page number immediately after the end quotation mark and before the final sentence punctuation. To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in text. Always give page numbers for quotations. Note that the word 'page' is abbreviated in such text citations:

According to Kozloff (1996), these same respondents reported "personality factors and

interpersonal style were the primary culprits" (p. 99).

If the quote comes in the middle of the sentence the page number should immediately follow the end quotation mark.

According to Kozloff (1996), these same respondents reported "personality factors and interpersonal style" (p. 99) were the primary culprits.

When the author is not directly mentioned in the sentence the whole citation immediately follows the end quotation mark.

They reported that "personality factors and interpersonal style" (Kozloff, 1996, p. 99) were the primary culprits.

Long quotes (over 40 words):

Quotation of 40 words or more must be written in block form with the entire paragraph indented. Quotation marks are not used with a block quote, and the citation should come after the final punctuation. (Use long quotes sparingly.)

...adjustment requires the learning of new behaviors that are suitable in the host culture.

Clarity of the frame of reference is the extent to which the certain set of cognitive elements drawn from the individual's world view is unanimous in recommending a type of behavior as "normative"; that is, clarity is the degree of consistency between manifest behaviour and the operant frame of reference. (Selmer et al., 1996, p. 832)

At home, the applicability of habitual behavior and clarity of the operant home frame...

If the author is referred to in the text, only the page number belongs at the end of the block quote.

...and Selmer et al. (1996) believe that adjustment requires the learning of new behaviors that are suitable in the host culture.

Clarity of the frame of reference is the extent to which the certain set of cognitive elements drawn from the individual's world view is unanimous in recommending a type of behavior as "normative"; that is, clarity is the degree of consistency between manifest behaviour and the operant frame of reference. (p. 832)

At home, the applicability of habitual behavior and clarity of the operant home frame...

Citing direct quotes from electronic sources without page numbers:

For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the paragraph symbol. If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph within that section of the document to direct the reader to the location of the material.

Cooperation improved by as much as 50 percent in these cases (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5). However, other studies seem to indicate it is too early to know the true impact of the new training methods (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)

General Rules for the Reference List

(See reference examples in the following section and in the sample paper)

1. Every source listed on a reference page should be cited in the body of the paper.

2. Alphabetize the reference list by the author/editor/titles (which ever appears first for each reference on the list.

3. Use hanging indent. This means starting the first line flush left and indenting all other lines one half inch

4. Type the author's last name, comma, space, author's first initial, period, space, middle initial, period, and a space (If there is no middle initial, the first initial is sufficient. Never use a full first name.)

5. When no author or editor name is available, begin the citation with the title of the work.

6. If a source has no author or apparent title, create a logical title (preferably a brief descriptive title) of the work. Be sure it matches the title used in the citation in text, i.e. Annual volunteer participation report for 2002-2003.

7. Type the publication year (in parentheses) followed by a period and a space.

8. Italicize titles of books, journals, newspapers and movies.

9. Include a retrieval date for electronic sources only for those with content that changes over time, such as Wikis.

10. Use the DOI number for electronic sources rather than the name of the database. If the document does not contain a DOI number, use the URL of the publisher's home page. If the URL is used do not put a period after it. End the reference with the exact URL with no additional characters or punctuation.

11. All words in the titles of journals are capitalized and italicized.

12. Article titles are not italicized and only the first word in the title and the first word after colons are capitalized.

13. Book titles are italicized and only the first word in the titles, the first word after colons, and proper nouns are capitalized.

14. When citing journals, the volume number, if available, is given as well as the issue number, which is in parentheses. The italicizing from the title of the journal should continue through the volume number if used. The citation should end with the page range (page numbers the article starts and ends on in the journal). Do not use 'vol', 'issue', 'p.' or 'pp'. or any other abbreviation. It should be simply ##(#), ##-##. Some electronic versions will not provide page numbers. In that case you may leave that item off the reference.

15. References for books must list the city of the publisher, then a comma followed by the two letter state abbreviation, then a colon followed by the name of the publisher. For large cities such as New York, Boston, or Chicago no state abbreviation is necessary. For cities outside the US, the city name is followed by the country name. For widely recognized international cities such as London, Montreal, Tokyo, Moscow or Paris the country name is not necessary. (When in doubt include the state abbreviation or country name.)

16. Electronic versions of articles from printed publication may include additional analysis or data not contained in their print versions. If you have viewed the article only in its electronic form, you can use a standard journal reference for the work but you should add [Electronic version] after the article title and before the punctuation.

17. If a book has a subtitle, the main title is followed by a colon, and the first word of the subtitle is capitalized.

Audiovisual Media

Reference Examples

Zigler, Z. (Producer/Writer/Director). (1989). Goals: Setting and achieving them on schedule [Video]. (Available from Business Advantage Inc., 4900 University Ave. West Des Moines, IA 50266)

Book or other non-journal print resource with no author or editor identified

Coping with Market Instability. (2005). Brisbaine, NJ: Market Publishing.

Book with one author

Grembowski, D. (2001). The practice of health program evaluation (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks,

CA: Sage Publications.

Book with two authors

Brislin, R., & Yoshida, T. (1994). Intercultural communication training: An introduction (3rd ed.).. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Book with three or more authors

Cleveland, H., Mangone, G. J., & Adams, J. C. (1960). The overseas Americans: A report on Americans abroad. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chapter by one author within an edited book

(This example should be used only when an author' s work is published within an edited work. Keesing, R. M. (1974). Theories of culture. In G. Redding (Ed.), International culture

differences (3-28). Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Publishing Company.

Chapter by multiple authors within an edited book

(This example should be used only when authors' work is published within a larger work. Mendenhall, M. E., Kuhlmann, T. M., Stahl, G. K., & Osland, J. S. (2002). Employee

development and expatriate assignments. In M. J. Gannon & K. L. Newman (Eds.), The Blackwell handbook of cross-cultural management (155- 184). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Dissertation

George, M. E. (1991). Cultural diversity in public elementary schools: An examination of principals' cultural adaptability and student achievement (Doctoral dissertation, University of La Verne, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 427.

Edited books

Burn, B. B. (Ed.).(2010). Integrating study abroad into the undergraduate liberal arts curriculum. New York: Greenwood Press.

Edited book with multiple editors

Triandis, H. C., & Brislin, R. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, Vol. 5: Social psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Editions of books

Royse, D. (2001). Program evaluation: A basic introduction(3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Journal article with no author

Annual community watch volunteer participation report for 2002-2003. (2003). Community Watch, 15(3), 7.

Journal article with a corporate author

EM Guild, Inc. (2001, March). Viva la study abroad in Europe and Asia. Careers & Colleges, 21(4), 4.

Journal article with one author

Aycan, Z. (1997). Expatriate adjustment as a multifaceted phenomenon: Individual and organizational level predictors. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(4), 434-456.

Journal article with two authors

Chowanec, G. D., & Newstrom, C. N. (1991). The strategic management of international human resources. Business Quarterly, 56(2), 65-70.

Journal article with three or more authors

Eschbach, D. M., Parker, G. E., & Stoeberl, P. A. (2001). American repatriate employees' retrospective assessment of the effects of cross-cultural training on their adaptation to international assignments. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(2), 270-287.

Unpublished document

Bartel, R. J. (2001). International Business Institute: Preliminary Bulletin-2002. Stanford, IL: Author.

Copyright © 2010, 2003 Mount Vernon Nazarene University Graduate and Professional Studies

APA Style Guide 25

Referencing Electronic Sources

APA6 does not require a retrieval date in references. (This is a change from APA5)

Underlined URLs are acceptable. Be consistent. Either underline all of them or none of them.

Electronic articles also appearing in a printed version.

The URL is not required in this case. Use "Electronic version" in brackets after the article title. Whitmeyer, J. M. (2000). Power through appointment [Electronic version]. Social Science

Research, 29, 535-555.

Electronic source with an author, a date a title, and a URL

Brook, A. (2008). Kant's view of the mind and consciousness of self. Retrieved from

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-mind/

Young, L., & Rubican, K. (2001). Brand building. Ad Focus. Retrieved from http://www.fm.co.za/adfocus/young/brand.html

Electronic source with an author and title but no date

If no date is given for the publication/posting, use (n.d.) to indicate no date was available.

Bolender, R. K. (n.d.). Personal mission statement. Retrieved from

http://www.bolender.com/Dr.%20Ron/Portfolio/Personal_Mission_Statement.htm

Electronic source with a date and a title but no author

Organizational behavior. (2009). Harvard Business School. Retrieved from

http://www.hbs.edu/units/ob/index.html

Electronic source with a title but no author and no date

About us. (n.d.). Character Education Partnership. Retrieved from

http://www.character.org/aboutus

Our expatriate preparation services. (n.d.). Expatriate Preparation Guide. Retrieved from http://www.expatworld.co.za/our%20services.html

APA Style Guide 26

Copyright © 2010, 2003 Mount Vernon Nazarene University Graduate and Professional Studies

Electronic source with a date but no author, editor or a given title

If there is no apparent author, editor or title, create a brief logical descriptive title for the source. Volunteer participation statistics for fiscal year 2003-2004. (2004). Volunteer Council. Retrieved

from http://www.volunteeramerica/2003-4/participation/statistics.html

Electronic source with no author or editor, no given title and no date

If there is no apparent author, editor or title, create a brief logical descriptive title for the source. Opportunities to volunteer in Asia. (n.d.). Volunteer America. Retrieved from

http://www.volunteeramerica.net/Volunteer-in-Asia.html

Electronic source requiring a subscription to view the article

Include the name of database at the end.

Pufpaff, L., & Yssel, N. (2010). Effects of a 6-week, co-taught literacy unit on preservice special

educators' literacy-education knowledge. Psychology in the Schools, 47(5), 493-500.

Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.

An electronic source (journal article) from an online database with a DOI number

If a DOI exists for an article from an online periodical, include it at the end of the reference. Sonnenschein, S., Stapleton, L., & Benson, A. (2010). The relation between the type and amount

of instruction and growth in children's reading competencies. American Educational

Research Journal, 47(2), 358-389. doi:10.3102/0002831209349215.

If a DOI exists for an electronic source include the DOI instead of the URL at the end of the

reference.

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist

Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

A digital object identifier (DOI) is now being assigned by the International DOI Foundation to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. When DOIs are available, you should include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.

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Online Abstract

If you are citing an abstract when the full article is available, add "[Abstract]" after the article/source name.

Smith, J. (2010). How many professors does it take to change a light bulb? [Abstract]. Journal of Common Sense, 37(2), 44-46.

Online Newspaper Article

Kent, C. (2010, September 1). The true identity of Superman. The Daily Planet. Retrieved from http://www.dailyplanet.com

Electronic Books

If the book is only available in a digital format or is difficult to find in print.

Mc Fly, M. K. (2012). To the future and back: A life changing experience. Retrieved from

http://digital.library.my.imagination.com/scifi.html

If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from"

Davis, M. (2012). Music from my mind. Available from http://www.imagination.com/blues/trumpet-12456789

Chapter/Section of an Online Document or Chapter

Humperdink, E. E. (2012). Music man: The big story behind the big name. In Famous singers from the past. Retrieved from http://imagination.music.org/bigname/longname.html

Stiltskin, R. J. (2012). And then I woke up. In J. S. Sandman and G. B. Morningside (Eds.), A century of sleep in America. Retrieved from Exclusive Premier Online database.

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Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Commonly encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide authors' names. In such cases move the entry name to the beginning of the citation.

Marketing. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/365730/marketing

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes or presentation slides, provide the [file format] after the title (e.g.PDF document, PowerPoint slides, Word document, MP3 file).

Snooze, B. (2012). Making business writing fun [PDF document]. Retrieved from MVNU Moodle Web site: http://connect.learninghouse.com/orientationpart1/

Hughes, K. E. (2010). Week Two Powerpoint: Chapters 5-7. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://ilearn.mvnu.edu/course/view.php?id=11

E-mail

E-mails are not included in a list of references, though they should be parenthetically cited in the body of the paper. (J. Doe, personal communication, September 12, 1964).

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Titles for items in online communities like blogs or forums are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Include post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, include the URL where the message is archived (e.g. "Message posted to..., archived at...").

Blogger, O. L. (12010, January 17). Why I think I am right and you are wrong [Post 212]. Message posted to http://groups.google.com/forum/messages/0000212.html

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Wikis

APA warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia) are not reliable sources for research. They may be a good place to start a search but never rely on a wiki as the ultimate source of any information and rarely if ever should a wiki be cited in a research paper. They are collaborative projects and the host of the wiki cannot guarantee the accuracy or truthfulness of the entries. But if a wiki is cited the reference should look like this:

Reliability of Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reliability_of_Wikipedia

Audio and Video Podcast

Provide as much information as possible. The example includes about every possible type of information that could exist for a podcast. It is unlikely you will find all these pieces for every podcast.

Bell, A. G. & Watson, T. (Producers). (1875, June 5). Can you hear me now? [Episode 1]. Telephone Science @ Blast from the Past Podcasts. Podcast retrieved from http://science.imagination.org/podcast.htm

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Using the Bible

Reference entries are not required for major classical works, such as the Bible. If a Biblical text is cited, no reference is required. However, if a study note or other extrabiblical material is cited, a standard APA reference is required.

Citing the Bible in text:

In the first citation (and only the first citation) identify the version used. Spell out the version in the citation. Do not abbreviate "RSV", "KJV", "NASB", "NIV", etc. Parts of classical works (e.g., books, chapters, verses, lines) are numbered across all editions, so use these numbers instead of page numbers when referring to specific parts of the source:

(1Co 13:1, Revised Standard Version)

If a second version of the Bible is introduced into the paper by quoting from it, then place that version in the citation.

Reference Bible passages in the text parenthetically. Within the parentheses, place the abbreviated form of the Bible book followed by chapter, then colon and verse. Write Genesis chapter one, verse one like this:

(Gn 1:1).

If referring to more than one verse then use the following format (verse 1 through 5):

(Gn 1:1-5).

When quoting a verse (or part of one) the reference comes at the end of the quote. Quotation marks end prior to the parentheses with the final punctuation after the citation:

"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth" (Gn 1:1).

When the reference appears as part of the flow of the sentence write out the book name in full:

"In Genesis chapter one the days of creation are systematically detailed by the writer." If a passage is referred to indirectly, it should be done like this:

The days of creation are systematically detailed by the writer (Gn 1).

Use the following abbreviations for the biblical books:

Old Testament books: Genesis Gn

Exodus Ex Leviticus Lev Numbers Nu Deuteronomy Dt Joshua Jos Judges Jdg Ruth Ru 1 Samuel 1Sa 2 Samuel 2Sa 1 Kings 1Ki 2 Kings 2Ki 1 Chronicles 1Ch

2 Chronicles 2Ch Ezra Ezr Nehemiah Ne Esther Est Job Job Psalms Ps Proverbs Pr Ecclesiastes Ecc Song Of Songs SS Isaiah Isa Jeremiah Jer Lamentations La Ezekiel Eze

Daniel Da Hosea Hos Joel Joel Amos Am Obadiah Ob Jonah Jnh Micah Mic Nahum Na Habakkuk Hab Zephaniah Zep Haggai Hag Zechariah Zec Malachi Mal

New Testament Books:

Matthew Mt Mark Mk Luke Lk John Jn Acts Ac Romans Ro 1 Corinthians 1Co 2 Corinthians 2Co Galatians Gal

Ephesians Eph Philippians Php Colossians Col 1 Thessalonians 1Th 2 Thessalonians 2Th 1 Timothy 1Ti 2 Timothy 2Ti Titus Tit Philemon Phm

Hebrews Heb James Jas 1 Peter 1Pe 2 Peter 2Pe 1 John 1Jn 2 John 2Jn 3 John 3Jn Jude Jude Revelation Rev

 

What Changed from APA 5 to APA 6

The following are the primary changes made by APA in the sixth edition.

1.Headers have changed. On the title page the words "Running head:" precede the 3-5 word short form of the TITLE which is in all capital letters and is flush left in the header. The page number is flush right. After the title page the words "Running head:" are omitted and the header is just the short form of the TITLE in all capital letters (flush left) and the page number (flush right). (See sample paper.)

2.Section Headings at all levels in the body of the paper are now bolded. Italics is no longer used for second or third level headings. The title, and the headings Abstract, Reference, Appendices, List of Tables and List of Figures have not changed and are not bolded.

3.Double spacing is now the norm between sentences instead of single spacing. 4.Retrieval date is no longer a part of references for electronic sources.

5.More types of electronic/online sources exist today so more examples of electronic references have been added.

6.If a DOI number exists for a print article, include it at the end of the reference. If a DOI exists for an electronic source include the DOI instead of the URL at the end of the reference. A digital object identifier (DOI) is now being assigned by the International DOI Foundation to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. When DOIs are available, you should include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.